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Stages of Applebee’s Schema

Page history last edited by PBworks 16 years, 8 months ago

Stages of Applebee’s Schema




Stage 1-HEAPS 2-3 years of age

A child randomly describes and labels objects and events. There is no central theme or organization evident.


Stage 2-SEQUENCES 3 years of age

Concrete and factual associations/links begin to form. The child becomes aware that the story contains unique characteristics (e.g. central theme).There are no associations to sequence of events in a story. The child will often describe what a character has done rather than consider a plot.


Stage 3-PRIMITIVE NARRATIVES 4-41/2 years of age

Children begin to realize that events within a story directly relate to other factors within a story. They begin to see significant importance within an event or object. Simple inferences begin to be made. Stories produced by children contain story grammar, elements of an initiating event, action, and consequence.


Stage 4-UNFOCUSED CHAINS 41/2-5 years of age

Children show a cognitive change in understanding of relationships of events in a story. The child still cannot conceive of an overall plot, but they become aware that events lead directly from each other.


Stage 5- FOCUSED CHAINS 41/2-5 years of age

Children begin to combine two aspects of the story, how a sequence of events relates to a central core. They begin to form the process of forming a narrative.


Stage 6-NARRATIVES 5-7 years of age

Children become aware that one event will branch from another and in turn consist of new information. They aware that stories now have a main theme, plot, and characters.


Adapted from:

Best Practice Makes Perfect: Speech & Language Intervention for Preschoolers


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