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Spelling Stages

Page history last edited by PBworks 17 years, 4 months ago

Clark Barrow

 

 

This page is a work in progress as I develop my links and extra information pages.

 

Links to additional pages are at the bottom of this article.

 

 

Outline

  1. Introduction to Spelling Stages
    1. Stage I
    2. Stage II
    3. Stage III
    4. Stage IV
    5. Stage V
  2. Summary

Spelling Stages

 

Students’ spelling and correct sequencing of letters in the writing system, --Orthography--, indicates their cognitive process advancing from oral to written communication (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2004). The development of --English Orthography- evolved through the years and provides the basis of a systematic structure for phonics and spelling. Griffith and Leavell (1995) say, “Spellings provide a window into children's growing comprehension of written language's organizational principles” (Invented Spelling and English Orthography section, para. 4). As children begin to write, they experiment with letter formation – or their imitation of writings by adults or advanced writers – and then as their cognitive skills advance, “print becomes a critical medium for conceptual development” (p. 2). Additionally, children cannot become fully literate until they develop fast recognition of words and “accurate production of words in writing” (p. 4). By doing this, Bear et al. claim students can then focus their attention on making meaning of word sounds and text. -

 

-Spelling in the United States is a relationship between letters and sounds and is “manifested in a left-to-right sequence” (Bear et al., 2004, p. 5). Our spelling system, which is alphabetic, develops through several learning stages. In this research, I present developmental spelling models by Bear et al., Bear and Templeton, and Gentry. These models differ slightly in stages. For example, Bear et al. and Gentry present five stages whereas Bear and Templeton present six. In this paper I highlight these differences in both terminology and perceived learning in the stages. -

 

Spelling in the United States is a relationship between letters and sounds and is “manifested in a left-to-right sequence” (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2004, p. 5). Students’ spelling and correct sequencing of letters in the writing system, Orthography, indicates their cognitive process advancing from oral to written communication (Bear et al.). The development of English Orthography evolved through the years and provides the basis of a systematic structure for phonics and spelling. Griffith and Leavell (1995) say, “Spellings provide a window into children's growing comprehension of written language's organizational principles” (Invented Spelling and English Orthography section, para. 4). Our spelling system, which is alphabetic, develops through several learning stages. In this research, I present developmental spelling models by Bear et al., Bear and Templeton, and Gentry. These models which differ slightly in stages. For example, Bear et al. and Gentry present five stages whereas Bear and Templeton and Gillet, Temple, and Crawford present six. -In this paper I highlight these differences in both terminology and perceived learning in the stages. -

 

Bear et al. (2004) purport the first stage of spelling development as Stage I: Emergent Spelling; Gentry (2000) states the name in Bear and Templeton’s model is Prephonemic and in the Gentry model it is called Precommunicative. Gillet, Temple, and Crawford (2004) also present six stages. Nonetheless, there is agreement among these models concerning to the learner’s spelling development. In this stage, the learner is approximately 1 to 7 years old and in Pre-K to the mid-first grade. During this time, Griffith and Leavell (1995) say, “spelling development begins the first time a child picks up a writing instrument and makes a mark on a page” (Invented Spelling and English Orthography section, para. 5). As children begin to write, they experiment with letter formation – or their imitation of writings by adults or advanced writers – and then as their cognitive skills advance , “print becomes a critical medium for conceptual development” (p. 2). Typically, the child has not received any reading or writing instruction and is unfamiliar with the standard left-to-right sequencing of letters. However, the child understands letters convey a message and may write a message that only he or she can read and later, he or she may read it as something similar or perhaps different from the original thought (Gillet, Temple, & Crawford, 2004). Even though children understand letters convey a message, "they do not yet understand that letters represent speech sounds" (Gillet et al., p. 75), which means orthographic knowledge at this stage is prephonetic. Age, however, is not the determining factor of placement of learners within spelling stages. Bear at al. state anyone (e.g., a grown individual) who is an emergent reader may be in this spelling stage. -Since the markings of beginning spellers have no relevance to sound, orthographic knowledge at this stage is prephonetic. -

 

Bear et al. (2004) present stage II of spelling development as Letter Name – Alphabetic Spelling. Gentry (2000) refers to this stage of Bear and Templeton’s Model as Semiphonemic. Stage II of the Gentry Model presented in 1977 and 1982 is called Semiphonetic. This stage includes children 4 to 9 years old and children who are in grades K to early third-. In this stage, children- and are beginning to learn to read. It is during this stage when children learn to use “the alphabetic principle, they find matches between letters and the spoken word by how the sound is made or articulated in the mouth” (Bear et al., 2004, p. 13). Whole words may be represented by only one or two letters (Gillet, Temple, & Crawford, 2004). It is during this Semiphonemic, or Emergent Stage as purported by Gillet et al, where children "begin to recognize that letters have a sound associated with them" (p. 75).

 

Bear et al., (2004) present Stage III: Within Word Pattern Spelling as the stage where learners have acquired a reading vocabulary of approximately 200 to 400 words. Students in this stage are usually 6 to 12 years old and in grades 1 to mid-4. In this stage, learners have acquired enough “short-vowel patterns” (p. 15) to become independent readers. Gentry (2000) refers to this stage as the Letter Name stage of the Bear and Templeton Model and calls it the Phonetic stage within the Gentry Model; Gillet et al. (2004) also refer to this as the Letter Name Stage. During this stage of spelling development, the learner understands the concept of individual words and then learns to place spaces between them (Kolodziej and Columba, 2005). During this stage, “increased experience with print leads the within-word pattern speller to a tacit understanding that there is more to spelling than direct letter-sound matches” (Ganske, 1999, p. 45). The beginning speller can use this information to “Decode  in reading and to encode, or spell, in writing” (Gillet, Temple, & Crawford, 2004, p. 77) and advance to the next spelling stage.

 

Stage IV: Syllables and Affixes Spelling, as labeled by Bear et al, (2000), represents a developmental stage whereby the beginning spellers’ focus begins to shift toward “content area reading” (p. 17). Students in this stage are usually 8 to 18 years old and in grades 3 to 8. Gentry (2000) refers to this stage as the Transitional stage and Bear and Templeton and Gillet et al. (2004) refer to this stage as the Within-Word Pattern stage. In this stage, the speller analyzes Syllables and Affixes and learns to analyze and understand words that are more complicated. Words like moment and dungeon become words the learner can write by dividing into syllables. Ganske (1999) states during this stage new hurdles emerge. It is during this stage where spellers must maintain “pattern-sound principles across syllable boundaries” (p. 46). In many ways, this is the stage where learners divide and conquer complicated multi-syllable words by dividing them into their individual syllables and seeing how they fit together. It is also during this stage where learners learn the link between syntax and spelling by studying and writing plurals (Bear et al.). Some of the most difficult words for the learner during this stage are “Homophones, with their different spellings of identical-sounding words like tale/tail and threw/through” (-Gillet, Temple, & Crawford, 2004,- p. 77).

 

During Stage V: Derivational Relations Spelling stage, learners continue to learn to spell throughout adulthood as they continue to read and investigate new words (Bear et al., 2000); Bear et al. purport this is the last stage in their developmental model. Students in this stage are usually 10 years old or older and in grades 5 through 12. Gentry calls this stage of the Bear and Templeton Model of 1998 the Syllable Juncture Stage and then presents a sixth stage of the Bear and Templeton Model called Derivational Constancy. Gentry labels this stage of the Gentry Model the Correct (Conventional) stage. During the fifth stage, spellers looks at the “bases and roots and the classical origin of polysyllabic words” (Bear et al., p. 19). The history of words and their derivations give students extended and more in-depth meanings of words and help students’ “vocabularies continue to grow and branch out into specialized disciplines and interests” (p. 19). This is the basis of Word Study where students learn to think about the spelling and meaning of words. Gillet et al. (2004) claim this stage, which they call the Syllable Juncture Stage, "an extension of the within word stage" (p. 77).

 

During Stage VI: The Derivational Constancy Stage as put forth by Gillet et al. (2004) that spellers "grapple with spelling unusual or infrequently occuring words" (p. 78). During this time spellers make meaning of how words are related by their roots. To augment this understanding readers may study Greek and Latin bases, which may help them understand correct ways of spelling confusing words.

 

Obviously, reading and writing present the cognitive abilities of learners to the listening and viewing audience. Through these communication medians, educators can assess readers and writers, of any age, and use this assessment to determine necessary interventions to offset deficiencies in their communication abilities. The capability of teachers to identify the spelling stages of many students affords them the opportunity to implement interventions that advance students’ spelling abilities. Many strategies offer teachers the means to assess the developmental stages of spellers. Word Study Spelling Inventory is one method where teachers can “document the way students spell” (Tierney & Readence, 2000, p. 165). Once the educator determines the correct stages of the learners, he or she can organize Word Study Instruction to increase the students’ spelling abilities. Instructional methods tailored to individual learners’ needs are called differentiated instruction and is highly sought after within the educational system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other pages associated with this article and authored by Clark E. Barrow:

 

Affixes

 

Decode

 

English Orthography

 

Homophones

 

Syllables

 


 

References

 

Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2004). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction (3rd ed.). Upper Saddler River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

 

Ganske, K. (1999). The developmental spelling analysis: A measure of orthographic knowledge. Educational Assessment, 6(1), 41-70.

 

Gentry, J. R. (2000). A retrospective on invented spelling and a look forward. The Reading Teacher, 54(3), 318.

 

Gillet, J. W., Temple, C., & Crawford, A. N. (2004). Understanding reading problems: Assessment and instruction (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

 

Griffith, P. L., & Leavell, J. A. (1995). There Isn't Much to Say about Spelling ... or Is There?. Childhood Education, 72(2), 84+.

 

Kolodziej, N. J., & Columba, L. (2005). Invented spelling: Guidelines for parents. Reading Improvement, 42(4), 212+.

 

Tierney, R. J., & Readence, J. E. (2000). Reading strategies and practices: A compendium (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

 

 


External Links

 

International Reading Association: Association promoting literacy for all individuals by improving reading instruction, dissemination of reading research, and encouraging reading. Publications include several journals, books, brochures, and videos; all available for a fee.

 

Learning To Read: Resources for Language Arts and Reading Research: Website with numerous links pertaining to reading and spelling.

 

National Adult Literacy Database (NALD): Links to literacy organizations in Canada and other places. Resource links for teachers and learners.

 

FCAT Sample Test Booklets and Answer Keys (online in pdf format) for Mathematics, Reading, Writing, and Science: Sample FCAT test books and answer keys for reading and mathematics, grades 3 - 10; science, grades 5, 8, & 11; and writing, grades 4, 8, & 10.

 


 

 

Commentary by Bill Barnes

Substantive Commentary

Clark, you've omitted the work by Temple and Gillet. They have a different scheme for spelling stages. They have different criteria.

Temple and Gillet, Understanding Reading Problems, Houghton Mifflin 2004

 

Commentary by Kim Freeman

 

The first paragraph is a little too much;however when I got to the 2nd paragraph I started to really enjoy your paper. The 2nd paragraph seemed to be the real introduction.

 

Commentary by Vironica Simmons

 

Great article. You are a very precise writer. I particularly enjoyed the examples given of each stage. The links you provided are well written and clarify your article. I did not see any links to other students' pages, but I noticed the note at the heading of your article, so I know they are coming.

I agree with Kim on the second paragraph being more of the introduction than the actual first paragraph, but I realize that you are defining your topic. Perhaps the first paragraph could be imbedded later into the paper?

Again, great article!

 

Developmental Spelling Theory

 

 

 

 


 

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